Journal of Discipliana

Document Type



While the founders of the Stone-Campbell Movement rejected Christian participation in warfare, by World War I, the majority of Disciples of Christ supported participation in the conflict. However, a small pocket of Disciples, such as D.L. Pendleton—the grandson of Alexander Campbell—continued to oppose Christian participation in warfare. Pendleton, a prosperous and powerful attorney and a quintessential community insider, spoke out against the war. Pendleton’s outspokenness about war transgressed community norms, transforming him from an insider to an outsider, and therefore, susceptible to both harassment by the FBI and to the vigilante justice of his community.